A bird eye view of São Paulo, where the majority of illegal immigrants in Brazil reside. Brazil has long been fraction of global migration routes. In 2009, the government projected the figure of undocumented immigrants at approx 200,000 people; a Catholic aid organization working with immigrants said there were 600,000 illegal (75,000 of which from Bolivia). That similar year, the Brazilian Parliament accepted an official pardon, opening a six-month window for all foreigners to look for confirmation regardless of their preceding standing before the law. Brazil had last legally recognized all immigrants in 1998; bilateral deals, one of which support the validation of all mutual immigrants with Bolivia to date, signed in 2005, are also common.
Illegal immigrants in Brazil take pleasure in the similar legal privileges as inhabitant Brazilians concerning access to social services for example public education and the Brazilian public healthcare system. Most illegal immigrants in Brazil arrive from Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, China (mostly from Fujian), North Korea and sub-Saharan Africa. A Federal Police operation examines Chinese immigrants who traveled through six countries previous to arriving in São Paulo to job under substandard conditions in the textile industry.
After signing the 2009 general pardon bill into law, President Lula said, in a dialogue, that "oppression and bigotry against immigrants will not resolve the problems caused by the financial crisis", thus also severely criticizing the "policy of bias and prejudice" next to immigrants in developed nations.
An October 2009 portion from O Globo, quoting a UNDP revise, estimates the figure of illegal immigrants at 1.4 million, and points out to a current wave of racial intolerance amongst the general public.